Got stuck on this myself (specifically running my laravel tests with xdebug from cmd line in vscode).
I was following this tutorial: https://tighten.co/blog/configure-vscode-to-debug-phpunit-tests-with-xdebug which is for mac/linux and as I'm using Laragon/Windows I ended up here.
I did add PHP NTS, but not sure that it was needed. I think it's most likely that the solution was by adding the following options as a minimum in
This post prompted me to add
xdebug.remote_host=localhost the https://xdebug.org/archives/xdebug-general/1865.html which made the difference.
I also set the env var by running
setx XDEBUG_CONFIG "idekey=VSCODE", again not sure if that made the difference or not but was one step I took.
Hope this helps someone!